As resoluções vetadas pelos EUA na ONU de 1972 a 2006

Por Waldyr Kopezky

Os campeões de vetos no CS da ONU – então os EUA podem, mas Rússia e China não? 

Olha os números do País que se auto-intitula “Paladino da Liberdade”, “Defensor da Democracia e dos Direitos Humanos” no mundo – abaixo está uma lista de todas as resoluções vetadas pelos EUA no Conselho de Segurança da ONU e das resoluções de Assembléia Geral, onde os Estados UNidos votaram contra a maioria esmagadora das nações do mundo (de 1972 até 2006). Notem que, mesmo nesta amostragem parcial (não cosegui dados dos outros períodos) os EUA utilizaram seu poder de veto em nada menos do que SETENTA ocasiões – vale lembrar que somente no CS seu voto possui poder de veto total e irrestrito às resoluções, mas o voto contra tais resoluções propostas (nenhuma absurda) dá a medida do reacionarismo da potência em sua política externa. Desculpem por esse levantamento estar em inglês, pois foi feito junto ao órgão estatístico da Secretaria-Geral das Nações Unidas – traduzi-lo por inteiro levaria tempo muito tempo; mas está bem compreensível. Vejam:

Year

Resolution Vetoed by the USA

1972

Condemns Israel for killing hundreds of people in Syria and Lebanon in air raids.

1973

Afirms the rights of the Palestinians and calls on Israel to withdraw from the occupied territories.

1976

Condemns Israel for attacking Lebanese civilians.

Condemns Israel for building settlements in the occupied territories.

Calls for self determination for the Palestinians.

Afirms the rights of the Palestinians.

1976

Condemns South Africa’s attempts to impose apartheid on Namibia.

1976

For the admission of Vietnam to the United Nations.

1977

Condemns the apartheid situation in South Africa.

1978

Urges the permanent members (USA, USSR, UK, France, China) to insure United Nations decisions on the maintenance of international peace and security.

Criticises the living conditions of the Palestinians.

Condemns the Israeli human rights record in occupied territories.

1978

Calls for developed countries to increase the quantity and quality of development assistance to underdeveloped countries.

1979

Calls for an end to all military and nuclear collaboration with the apartheid South Africa.

Strengthens the arms embargo against South Africa.

Offers assistance to all the oppressed people of South Africa and their liberation movement.

Concerns negotiations on disarmament and cessation of the nuclear arms race.

Calls for the return of all inhabitants expelled by Israel.

Demands that Israel desist from human rights violations.

Requests a report on the living conditions of Palestinians in occupied Arab countries.

Offers assistance to the Palestinian people.

Discusses sovereignty over national resources in occupied Arab territories.

Calls for protection of developing countries’ exports.

Calls for alternative approaches within the United Nations system for improving the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Opposes support for intervention in the internal or external affairs of states.

For a United Nations Conference on Women.

To include Palestinian women in the United Nations Conference on Women.

Safeguards rights of developing countries in multinational trade negotiations.

1980

Requests Israel to return displaced persons.

Condemns Israeli policy regarding the living conditions of the Palestinian people.

Condemns Israeli human rights practices in occupied territories.

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Afirms the right of self determination for the Palestinians.

1980

Offers assistance to the oppressed people of South Africa and their national liberation movement.

1980

Attempts to establish a New International Economic Order to promote the growth of underdeveloped countries and international economic co-operation.

Endorses the Program of Action for Second Half of United Nations Decade for Women.

Declaration of non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states.

Emphasises that the development of nations and individuals is a human right.

Calls for the cessation of all nuclear test explosions.

Calls for the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

1981

Promotes co-operative movements in developing countries.

Affirms the right of every state to choose its economic and social system in accord with the will of its people, without outside interference in whatever form it takes.

1981

Condemns activities of foreign economic interests in colonial territories.

Calls for the ending of all test explosions of nuclear weapons.

Calls for action in support of measures to prevent nuclear war, curb the arms race and promote disarmament.

Urges negotiations on prohibition of chemical and biological weapons.

Declares that education, work, health care, proper nourishment, national development, etc are human rights.

Concerns changes to the United Nations accounting methods.

1981

Condemns South Africa for attacks on neighbouring states, condemns apartheid and attempts to strengthen sanctions.

1981

Condemns an attempted coup by South Africa on the Seychelles.

1981

Demands that Israel cease excavations in areas of East Jerusalem considered by the United Nations to be part of the occupied territories.

Condemns Israel for bombing Iraqi nuclear installations.

Condemns Israeli policy regarding living conditions of the Palestinian people.

To establish a nuclear weapon free zone in the Middle East.

To establish rights for the Palestinian people.

To clarify the status of Jerusalem.

Discusses Palestinian refugees in the Gaza Strip.

Concering the rights of displaced Palestinians to return to their homes.

Concerning revenues from Palestinian refugees’ properties.

Establishment of the University of Jerusalem for Palestinian refugees.

Concerning Israeli human rights violations in occupied territories.

Condemns Israel closing of universities in occupied territories.

Opposes Israel’s decision to build a canal linking the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

Discusses sovereignty over national resources in occupied Palestine and other Arab territories.

Affirms the non-applicability of Israeli law over the Golan Heights.

1982

Condemns the Israeli invasion of Lebanon.

1982

Condemns the shooting of 11 Muslims at a shrine in Jerusalem by an Israeli soldier.

Calls on Israel to withdraw from the Golan Heights occupied in 1967.

1982

For the ratification of the convention on the suppression and punishment of apartheid.

To promote international action against apartheid.

Condemns apartheid in sports.

Calls for the cessation of further foreign investments and loans for South Africa.

1982

Calls for the setting up of a World Charter for the protection of the ecology.

Sets up a United Nations conference on succession of states in respect to state property, archives and debts.

Nuclear test bans and negotiations and nuclear free outer space.

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Supports a new world information and communications order.

Prohibition of chemical and bacteriological weapons.

Development of international law.

To prevent the exclusion of certain United Nations employees.

Protects against products harmful to health and the environment.

Declares that education, work, health care, proper nourishment, national development are human rights.

Implementation of the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States.

Concerning the adequacy of facilities of the Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.

Development of the energy resources of developing countries.

Restructuring international economic relations towards establishing a new international economic order.

1983

Afirms the right of every state to choose its economic and social system in accord with the will of its people, without outside interference in whatever form it takes.

Resolutions against apartheid South Africa.

Prevention of an arms race in outer space.

Declares that education, work, health care, proper nourishment, national development are human rights.

Concerning international law.

Concerning the Transport and Communications Decade in Africa.

Prohibition of manufacture of new weapons of mass destruction.

Reversing the arms race.

Prohibition of chemical and bacteriological weapons.

Requests a study on the naval arms race.

Concerning disarmament and security.

Strengthening the United Nations to respond to natural and other disasters.

1984

Condemns support of South Africa in its Namibian and other policies.

International action to eliminate apartheid.

1984

Condemns Israel for occupying and attacking southern Lebanon.

1984

Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States.

Condemns Israeli attack against Iraqi nuclear installation.

On the elimination of racial discrimination.

Affirms the rights of the Palestinian people.

For the convening of a Middle East peace conference.

Prohibition of new types of weapons of mass destruction.

Prohibition of chemical and bacteriological weapons.

Concerning the law of the sea.

Concerning Israeli human rights violations in occupied territories.

Condemns assassination attempts against Palestinian mayors.

Condemns Israel for failing to place its nuclear facilities under international safeguards.

Concerning a nuclear test ban.

To study military research and development.

Commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

Proposing economic assistance to the Palestinian people.

Support for the United Nations Industrial Development Organsiation.

Concerning the Industrial Development Decade for Africa.

Questions regarding the Economic Commission for Western Asia.

1985

Condemns Israel for occupying and attacking southern Lebanon.

Condemns Israel for using excessive force in the occupied territories.

1985

Resolutions about cooperation, human rights, trade and development.

Measures to be taken against Nazi, Fascist and neo-Fascist activities.

1986

Calls on all governments (including the USA) to observe international law.

1986

Condemns Israel for its actions against Lebanese civilians.

Calls on Israel to respect Muslim holy places.

Condemns Israel for sky-jacking a Libyan airliner.

1986

To set up a zone of peace and cooperation in the South Atlantic.

To eliminate existing imbalances in the information and communications fields.

To Strengthen of international security.

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Dialogue to improve the international situation.

For the establishment of a comprehensive system of international peace and security.

Declaration on the right to development.

Measures to improve the situation and ensure the human rights and dignity of all migrant workers.

Protection against products harmful to health and the environment.

1987

Calls on Israel to abide by the Geneva Conventions in its treatment of the Palestinians.

Calls on Israel to stop deporting Palestinians.

1987

Condemns Israel for its actions in Lebanon.

Calls on Israel to withdraw its forces from Lebanon.

1987

Cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States.

Calls for compliance in the International Court of Justice concerning military and paramilitary activities against Nicaragua and a call to end the trade embargo against Nicaragua.

Measures to prevent international terrorism, study the underlying political and economic causes of terrorism, convene a conference to define terrorism and to differentiate it from the struggle of people from national liberation.

Resolutions concerning journalism, international debt and trade.

Opposition to the build up of weapons in space.

Opposition to the development of new weapons of mass destruction.

Opposition to nuclear testing.

Proposal to set up South Atlantic “Zone of Peace”.

1988

Condemns Israeli practices against Palestinians in the occupied territories.

1989

Condemns USA invasion of Panama.

Condemns USA troops for ransacking the residence of the Nicaraguan ambassador in Panama.

1989

Condemns USA for shooting down 2 Libyan aircraft.

1989

Condemns USA support for the Contra army in Nicaragua.

Condemns illegal USA embargo of Nicaragua.

Opposing the acquisition of territory by force.

Calling for a resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict based on earlier UN resoltions.

1990

To send three UN Security Council observers to the occupied territories.

1995

Afirms that land in East Jerusalem annexed by Israel is occupied territory.

1997

Calls on Israel to cease building settlements in East Jerusalem and other occupied territories.

1999

Calls on the USA to end its trade embargo on Cuba.

2001

To send unarmed monitors to the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

Condemns Israel for acts of terror against civilians in the occupied territories.

To set up the International Criminal Court.

2002

To renew the peace keeping mission in Bosnia.

2002

Condemns the killing of UK worker for the United Nations by Israeli forces. Condemns the destruction of the World Food Programme warehouse.

2003

Condemns a decision by the Israeli parliament to “remove” the elected Palestinian president, Yasser Arafat.

Condemns the building of a wall by Israel on Palestinian land.

2003

To end the USA’s 40 year embargo of Cuba.

2004

Condemns the assassination of Hamas leader, Sheik Ahmad Yassin.

2004

Condemns the Israeli incursion and killings in Gaza.

2004

Production and processing of weapon-usable material should be under international control.

2006

Calls for an end to Israeli military incursions and attacks on Gaza.

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