UNICEF: 13 motivos para acabar com a violência nas escolas

<img alt="" data-attachment-id="150481" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-description="

Alunos participam de uma simulação de bullying na Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo. A atividade é parte de um programa da ONG Domovik, para estimular a mediação de conflitos entre os estudantes e diminuir casos de violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF. Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"1.8","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0220913/Babajanyan V","camera":"NIKON D800","caption":"Peer mediators simulate a case of bullying at Branko Radicevic School in Mitrovica North, on May 30, 2018. Snezana Dzogovic, 16, (right) experienced bullying when she was 11. Since being supported by the UNICEF supported Domovik NGO, she has grown to be active as a mediator. The involvement of students as peer mediators is an informal way of resolving small levels of conflict. The UNICEF peer mediation program is part of UNICEFu2019s violence prevention agenda.","created_timestamp":"1527684588","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"28","iso":"640","shutter_speed":"0.0025","title":"AB20180530UNICEFKosovoEVAC156","orientation":"0"}” data-image-title=”Alunos participam de uma simulação de bullying na Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo. A atividade é parte de um programa da ONG Domovik, para estimular a mediação de conflitos entre os estudantes e diminuir casos de violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF. Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-e1542196385614.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/ab20180530unicefkosovoevac156/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-e1542196385614.jpg” style=”border:0px;vertical-align:baseline;height:467px;border-radius:0px;width:700px;”>
Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo

Da UNICEF

13 motivos para acabar com a violência nas escolas

Os colégios deveriam ser um espaço seguro para crianças aprenderem e crescerem. Mas para metade de todos os adolescentes no mundo, a situação é bem diferente. Milhões de meninos e meninas enfrentam violência, bullying e ameaças, dentro e fora da sala de aula. O problema pode ter consequências duradouras na saúde física e mental das vítimas.

Para conscientizar a população sobre as agressões nos ambientes de ensino, o Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância (UNICEF) listou 13 razões pelas quais é urgente acabar com a violência nas escolas:

1. Um problema de proporções enormes
 

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Em Honduras, Carlos Ricardo Chavez, de 15 anos, era uma criança agressiva, que se dizia “cega pela raiva”. A escola resolveu dar uma segunda chance para o menino, que foi transferido para o turno da tarde. Mas na nova turma, Carlos acabou virando vítima de bullying, sendo espancado pelo menos uma vez por semana por seus colegas. Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"4","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0231757/Zehbrauskas","camera":"Canon EOS 5D Mark IV","caption":"On 28 August 2018 in Progreso, Yoro, Honduras, Carlos Ricardo Chavez, 15, was an aggressive kid who would fight back and, as he says, would be "blind with rage." He was transferred to the school’s afternoon period to give him a second chance and, if in the beginning things went well, it didn’t last long. Only this time he became the victim of his older peers. He was beaten at least once a week but decided to remain quiet and did not fight back. "I didn’t want to be in that state of rage I was before," he says. "Now I just want to do well in school." nnCarlos saw how his father came back home one day, dragged his mom out into the street and beat her and no one interfered. "I was frozen with fear, I couldn’t move to help her," he says, crying. "Then I told my father to never come back again, to forget he once had a son."rnrnIn 2018 in Honduras, societal violence has had a profound impact on a childu2019s ability to remain in school. This is especially true in neighbourhoods of the main urban areas including Tegucigalpa, Comayagu00fcela, Choloma, San Pedro Sula, Villanueva, El Progreso and La Ceiba, in which gangs and organized crime, not only exercise effective territorial control over these areas but are also responsible for violent deaths, extortions, movement restrictions and threats. In 2017, the school coverage rates for children and adolescents aged 3-17 years was 58 per cent, meaning that 42 per cent of children did not have access to education. In 2010, only 55 per cent of children who began primary school were able to graduate from it.nnAccording to UNICEF, half of students aged 13-15 worldwide u2013 around 150 million u2013 report having experienced peer-to-peer violence in and around school. Peer violence u2013 measured as the number of children who report having been bullied in the last month or having been involved in a physical fight in the last year u2013 is a pervasive part of young peopleu2019s education around the world. It impacts student learning and well-being","created_timestamp":"1535385814","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"35","iso":"400","shutter_speed":"0.004","title":"EVACHonduras_ZEHBRAUSKAS10","orientation":"1"}” data-image-title=”Em Honduras, Carlos Ricardo Chavez, de 15 anos, era uma criança agressiva, que se dizia “cega pela raiva”. A escola resolveu dar uma segunda chance para o menino, que foi transferido para o turno da tarde. Mas na nova turma, Carlos acabou virando vítima de bullying, sendo espancado pelo menos uma vez por semana por seus colegas. Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231757-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231757-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231757-e1542198228732.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/evachonduras_zehbrauskas10/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231757-e1542198228732.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Em Honduras, Carlos Ricardo Chavez, de 15 anos, era uma criança agressiva, que se dizia “cega pela raiva”. A escola resolveu dar uma segunda chance para o menino, que foi transferido para o turno da tarde. Mas na nova turma, Carlos acabou virando vítima de bullying, sendo espancado pelo menos uma vez por semana por seus colegas – Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

Cerca de 150 milhões de estudantes, dos 13 aos 15 anos, relataram ter sofrido violência dos seus prórios colegas, dentro e fora da escola. Metade de todos os adolescentes do mundo já passaram por agressões em centros de ensino.

2. Leis que não protegem contra castigo
 

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Em Villanueva, Honduras, o jovem de 16 anos, Darwin, lembra de seu colega Henry, que se suicidou em setembro de 2016. De acordo com um professor, os dois amigos sofriam bullying. Foto: UNICEF/Adriana Zehbrauskas

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"0","credit":"","camera":"","caption":"","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":"","orientation":"0"}” data-image-title=”Em Villanueva, Honduras, o jovem de 16 anos, Darwin, lembra de seu colega Henry, que se suicidou em setembro de 2016. De acordo com um professor, os dois amigos sofriam bullying. Foto: UNICEF/Adriana Zehbrauskas” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/image1170x530cropped-1024×461.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/image1170x530cropped-300×135.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/image1170x530cropped-e1536588672759.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,461″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-metade-dos-adolescentes-no-mundo-sao-vitimas-de-violencia-na-escola/image1170x530cropped-26/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/image1170x530cropped-e1536588672759.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 315px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Em Villanueva, Honduras, o jovem de 16 anos, Darwin, lembra de seu colega Henry, que se suicidou em setembro de 2016. De acordo com um professor, os dois amigos sofriam bullying – Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

Quase 720 milhões de jovens em idade escolar vivem em países onde eles não estão completamente protegidos pela lei de castigos corporais nas escolas. Essas crianças correm risco de sofrer castigos físicos, de professores e outras figuras de autoridade.

3. Bullying
 

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Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo, onde o UNICEF promove atividades de mediação de conflitos entre os jovens. Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"1.8","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0220910/Babajanyan V","camera":"NIKON D800","caption":"Peer mediators simulate a case of bullying at Branko Radicevic School in Mitrovica North, on May 30, 2018. Snezana Dzogovic, 16, (right) experienced bullying when she was 11. Since being supported by the UNICEF supported Domovik NGO, she has grown to be active as a mediator. The involvement of students as peer mediators is an informal way of resolving small levels of conflict. The UNICEF peer mediation program is part of UNICEFu2019s violence prevention agenda.","created_timestamp":"1527684767","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"28","iso":"640","shutter_speed":"0.0025","title":"AB20180530UNICEFKosovoEVAC163","orientation":"0"}” data-image-title=”Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo, onde o UNICEF promove atividades de mediação de conflitos entre os jovens. Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220910-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220910-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220910-e1542197836296.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/ab20180530unicefkosovoevac163/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220910-e1542197836296.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo, onde o UNICEF promove atividades de mediação de conflitos entre os jovens – Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo

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Em nível global, um em cada três estudantes, com idade de 13 a 15 anos, já sofreu bullying. Segundo dados coletados pelo UNICEF, o problema é um dos tipos mais comuns de violência relatados nas escolas.

4. Grupos vulneráveis
 

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Em Puerto Cortes, em Honduras, Jose Angel Lizama, de 14 anos, senta ao lado de sua mãe, Lourdes, em casa. O jovem tem autismo e sofreu bullying na escola desde os seus primeiros anos na educação formal. Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"2.5","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0231740/Zehbrauskas","camera":"Canon EOS 5D Mark IV","caption":"On 27 August 2018 in Puerto Cortes, Cortes, Honduras, Jose Angel Aguila Lizama (right), 14, who is autistic, sits at home with his mother, Lourdes Lizama. Jose Angel has been the victim of bullying since his first years of school – from untrained teachers who did not know how to deal with him and would send him home saying he wasn’t learning, to classmates who would steal his belongings and make fun of him.nnAt one point, Jose Angel missed school for 21 days straight and kept asking his mother, "Am I dumb? Am I crazy? Am I normal, mom?" Jose Angel now goes to a private school and his mom even studied psychology to be able to help him, but he still feels he is treated like an outcast. Since April he has refused to go to class. "He asks me if it’s normal to feel hate," sighs his mother.rnrnIn 2018 in Honduras, societal violence has had a profound impact on a childu2019s ability to remain in school. This is especially true in neighbourhoods of the main urban areas including Tegucigalpa, Comayagu00fcela, Choloma, San Pedro Sula, Villanueva, El Progreso and La Ceiba, in which gangs and organized crime, not only exercise effective territorial control over these areas but are also responsible for violent deaths, extortions, movement restrictions and threats. In 2017, the school coverage rates for children and adolescents aged 3-17 years was 58 per cent, meaning that 42 per cent of children did not have access to education. In 2010, only 55 per cent of children who began primary school were able to graduate from it.nnAccording to UNICEF, half of students aged 13-15 worldwide u2013 around 150 million u2013 report having experienced peer-to-peer violence in and around school. Peer violence u2013 measured as the number of children who report having been bullied in the last month or having been involved in a physical fight in the last year u2013 is a pervasive part of young peopleu2019s education around the world. It impacts student learning and well-being in rich and poor countries alike.","created_timestamp":"1535285606","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"35","iso":"400","shutter_speed":"0.01","title":"EVACHonduras_ZEHBRAUSKAS01","orientation":"1"}” data-image-title=”Em Puerto Cortes, em Honduras, Jose Angel Lizama, de 14 anos, senta ao lado de sua mãe, Lourdes, em casa. O jovem tem autismo e sofreu bullying na escola desde os seus primeiros anos na educação formal. Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231740-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231740-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231740-e1542197681469.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/evachonduras_zehbrauskas01/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231740-e1542197681469.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Em Puerto Cortes, em Honduras, Jose Angel Lizama, de 14 anos, senta ao lado de sua mãe, Lourdes, em casa. O jovem tem autismo e sofreu bullying na escola desde os seus primeiros anos na educação formal – Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

Crianças que já são marginalizadas estão especialmente vulneráveis ao bullying. Entre os fatores que aumentam as chances de um jovem sofrer violência escolar, estão deficiência, pobreza extrema, etnia, orientação sexual ou identidade de gênero.

5. Agressores
 

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Alunos participam de uma simulação de bullying na Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo. A atividade é parte de um programa da ONG Domovik, para estimular a mediação de conflitos entre os estudantes e diminuir casos de violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF. Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"1.8","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0220913/Babajanyan V","camera":"NIKON D800","caption":"Peer mediators simulate a case of bullying at Branko Radicevic School in Mitrovica North, on May 30, 2018. Snezana Dzogovic, 16, (right) experienced bullying when she was 11. Since being supported by the UNICEF supported Domovik NGO, she has grown to be active as a mediator. The involvement of students as peer mediators is an informal way of resolving small levels of conflict. The UNICEF peer mediation program is part of UNICEFu2019s violence prevention agenda.","created_timestamp":"1527684588","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"28","iso":"640","shutter_speed":"0.0025","title":"AB20180530UNICEFKosovoEVAC156","orientation":"0"}” data-image-title=”Alunos participam de uma simulação de bullying na Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo. A atividade é parte de um programa da ONG Domovik, para estimular a mediação de conflitos entre os estudantes e diminuir casos de violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF. Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-e1542196385614.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/ab20180530unicefkosovoevac156/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220913-e1542196385614.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Alunos participam de uma simulação de bullying na Escola Branko Radicevic, em Mitrovica do Norte, no Kosovo. A atividade é parte de um programa da ONG Domovik, para estimular a mediação de conflitos entre os estudantes e diminuir casos de violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF – Foto: UNICEF/Babajanyan VII Photo

Em 39 países da Europa e da América do Norte, 17 milhões de adolescentes admitiram praticar bullying contra seus colegas na escola.

6. Brigas
 

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Na cidade de Puerto Cortés, em Honduras, Geraldine Matute, de 16 anos, conta que foi vítima repetidas vezes de bullying: “Eu nunca fui aceita pelos meus colegas, especialmente as meninas, por causa dos meus aspectos físicos”. Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"3.2","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0231998/Zehbrauskas","camera":"Canon EOS 5D Mark IV","caption":"[RELEASE OBTAINED] On 27 August 2018 in Puerto Cortu00e9s, Cortu00e9s, Honduras, Geraldine Suzette Matute, 16, sits in her classroom. She suffered from repeated bullying. "I was never accepted by my classmates in school, especially the girls, because of my physical aspects. They only wanted to do me wrong," she says. "They would grab my drawings, say that I was useless and would never amount to be anything in life. I changed schools, but it went on. I thought schools were supposed to support you, not destroy you", she adds. "I suffered physical abuse. I was hit hard in the face. Nobody said I’m sorry. I became depressed and started cutting myself. I wish the school officials would start to listen to the students – that they would realize its not just kids’s play," Geraldine says.rnrnIn 2018 in Honduras, societal violence has had a profound impact on a childu2019s ability to remain in school. This is especially true in neighbourhoods of the main urban areas including Tegucigalpa, Comayagu00fcela, Choloma, San Pedro Sula, Villanueva, El Progreso and La Ceiba, in which gangs and organized crime, not only exercise effective territorial control over these areas but are also responsible for violent deaths, extortions, movement restrictions and threats. In 2017, the school coverage rates for children and adolescents aged 3-17 years was 58 per cent, meaning that 42 per cent of children did not have access to education. In 2010, only 55 per cent of children who began primary school were able to graduate from it.nnAccording to UNICEF, half of students aged 13-15 worldwide u2013 around 150 million u2013 report having experienced peer-to-peer violence in and around school. Peer violence u2013 measured as the number of children who report having been bullied in the last month or having been involved in a physical fight in the last year u2013 is a pervasive part of young peopleu2019s education around the world. It impacts student learning and well-being in rich and poor countries alike.","created_timestamp":"1535297598","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"24","iso":"800","shutter_speed":"0.00625","title":"EVACHonduras_ZEHBRAUSKAS25","orientation":"1"}” data-image-title=”Na cidade de Puerto Cortés, em Honduras, Geraldine Matute, de 16 anos, conta que foi vítima repetidas vezes de bullying: “Eu nunca fui aceita pelos meus colegas, especialmente as meninas, por causa dos meus aspectos físicos”. Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231998-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231998-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231998-e1542196234995.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/evachonduras_zehbrauskas25/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0231998-e1542196234995.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Na cidade de Puerto Cortés, em Honduras, Geraldine Matute, de 16 anos, conta que foi vítima repetidas vezes de bullying: “Eu nunca fui aceita pelos meus colegas, especialmente as meninas, por causa das minhas características físicas” – Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas

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Um em cada três estudantes, com idade de 13 a 15 anos, já se envolveu em brigas físicas nas escolas. Ataques físicos por colegas são mais comuns entre os meninos, enquanto as meninas têm mais chances de serem vítimas de formas psicológicas de bullying ou associadas às relações interpessoais.

7. Armas nas escolas
 


Em Minneapolis, nos Estados Unidos, adolescentes protestam contra a violência armada e pedem reformas nas leis que autorizam a compra e o uso de armas – Foto: Wikimedia (CC)/Fibonacci Blue

Nos últimos 27 anos, houve pelo menos 70 tiroteios fatais dentro de escolas.

8. Cyberbullying: da rede para a vida real
 

<img alt="" data-attachment-id="150478" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-description="

Jovem checa seu smartphone na Escola São Francisco de Assis, na cidade de Cebu, nas Filipinas. Foto: UNICEF/Estey

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"1.4","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN014978/Estey","camera":"Canon EOS 5D Mark III","caption":"On 11 March 2016, a girl at St. Francis of Assisi School checks her smart phone after classes in the Central Visayas city of Cebu, Philippines. Social media is a huge influence in childrenu2019s lives and being constantly connected to the Internet also comes with many risks, including online sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.rnrnWorldwide, children make up one-third of all Internet users. With the rapid expansion of information and communication technologies, protecting children online is an urgent global priority. Among Filipino youth, more than half regularly use the Internet on own devices with easy and unrestricted online access. The lack of awareness of online safety, along with childrenu2019s natural inquisitiveness, adolescent sexual curiosity and susceptibility to peer influence, makes children vulnerable to online violence, sexual abuse and exploitation. This can manifest itself in cyberbullying, sexual solicitation online, and victimization through child sexual abuse material and live stream child sexual abuse. Online sexual abuse and exploitation may involve both contact and non-contact offenses, and often involves subtle forms of manipulation in which a child is coerced into these situations without being able to fully comprehend what is happening to them or give informed consent. While poverty in the Philippines, and a culture of silence in relation to child sexual abuse, are widely recognised as major underlying factors, the chronic lack of employment and desperation to survive is often used as a justification when families facilitate the exploitation of children. In 2015, the Philippines is reported to be among the top 10 countries worldwide where online child sexual exploitation is prevalent, involving mostly boys and girls age 10-14. Nearly half of Filipino children experience violence on the Internet and the number of children who are victims of abuse of live streaming for payment is estimated in the tens of thousands, with offenders se","created_timestamp":"1457662250","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"24","iso":"100","shutter_speed":"0.002532928064843","title":"JoshPhilippines19","orientation":"1"}” data-image-title=”Jovem checa seu smartphone na Escola São Francisco de Assis, na cidade de Cebu, nas Filipinas. Foto: UNICEF/Estey” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014978-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014978-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014978-e1542195792283.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/joshphilippines19/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014978-e1542195792283.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Jovem checa seu smartphone na Escola São Francisco de Assis, na cidade de Cebu, nas Filipinas – Foto: UNICEF/Estey

O bullying na internet, também conhecido como cyberbullying, permite aos agressores se esconder no anonimato, mas tem repercussões concretas. Vítimas de cyberbullying têm mais chances do que os outros alunos de usar álcool e drogas, matar aula, obter notas mais baixas e desenvolver uma baixa autoestima e problemas de saúde.

9. Violência em zonas de guerra
 

<img alt="" data-attachment-id="150479" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-description="

Na Ucrânia, Oleksandr, de 16 anos, é fotografado no antigo ginásio de sua escola em Troitske, na região de Luhansk, palco de um violento conflito armado. Foto: UNICEF/Samoilova

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"5","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0207778/Samoilova","camera":"ILCE-5000","caption":"Oleksandr, 16 years old, is photographed in a gym of School in Troitske Luhansk region, that was directly hit by a shell. The gym is now used as a storage room.","created_timestamp":"1388534601","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"16","iso":"100","shutter_speed":"0.0125","title":"C327EB19-F028-4D1D-A9B6-262C69C675BD","orientation":"1"}” data-image-title=”Na Ucrânia, Oleksandr, de 16 anos, é fotografado no antigo ginásio de sua escola em Troitske, na região de Luhansk, palco de um violento conflito armado. Foto: UNICEF/Samoilova” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0207778-1024×685.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0207778-300×201.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0207778-e1542195956414.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,685″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/c327eb19-f028-4d1d-a9b6-262c69c675bd/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0207778-e1542195956414.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 468px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Na Ucrânia, Oleksandr, de 16 anos, é fotografado no antigo ginásio de sua escola em Troitske, na região de Luhansk, palco de um violento conflito armado – Foto: UNICEF/Samoilova

Estima-se que 158 milhões de crianças, com idade dos seis aos 17 anos, vivam em áreas afetadas por conflitos, onde as salas de aula são frequentemente espaços pouco seguros. Crianças em zonas de confronto armado são obrigadas a arriscar suas vidas para ter uma educação.

Leia também:  Todos pelo novo Fundeb: Entenda por que o assunto é urgente

10. Violência que custa caro
 


Em Villanueva, Honduras, o jovem de 17 anos, Victor Fernando (à esquerda, no espelho), conta que sofre bullying por causa de sua orientação sexual: “Eu me sinto sozinho, fraco e vulnerável. Eles (os agressores) já tentaram me bater. Eles me provocam, mas eu não faço nada. Minhas notas caíram e eu perdi um ano na escola” – Foto: UNICEF/Zehbrauskas
 

Em nível global, o custo da violência contra as crianças chega a 7 trilhões de dólares por ano. Essas despesas deslocam recursos e acabam reduzindo investimentos em saúde, desenvolvimento da primeira infância e educação.

11. Violência gera violência
 

<img alt="" data-attachment-id="150488" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-description="

Jovem no Centro Escolar Confederacion Suiza, na cidade de San Salvador, capital de El Salvador. Foto: UNICEF/Heger

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"0","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UNI177485/Heger","camera":"","caption":"Wednesday 24th September.Centro Escolar Confederacion Suiza, a school in Los Planes de Renderos, city of San Salvador, El Salvador. The school has a Violence Prevention Committee and pupils benefit from a range of activities to help them understand and address the violence they encounter in daily life. Here, a boy sits apart from the main event while the rest of the school has gathered to watch a play performed by a visiting acting troupe. He had left the group and a teacher approached to ask what was wrong. He said he hadnu2019t been able to get anything to eat that morning and that now he felt tired and upset.rnrnWednesday 24th September 2014. Centro Escolar Confederacion Suiza, a school in an area of the town of Los Planes de Renderos(named after the Swiss Confederation) city of San Salvador, El Salvador. The school has a Violence prevention committee which offers peer support and discusses issues of violence inside and outside the school, including at home.","created_timestamp":"0","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"0","iso":"0","shutter_speed":"0","title":"UKLA2014-00661","orientation":"0"}” data-image-title=”Jovem no Centro Escolar Confederacion Suiza, na cidade de San Salvador, capital de El Salvador. Foto: UNICEF/Heger” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UNI177485-1024×685.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UNI177485-300×201.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UNI177485-e1542198033288.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,685″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/ukla2014-00661/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UNI177485-e1542198033288.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 468px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Jovem no Centro Escolar Confederacion Suiza, na cidade de San Salvador, capital de El Salvador – Foto: UNICEF/Heger

Crianças que crescem em contextos violentos têm mais chances de reproduzir a violência quando se tornarem jovens adultos.

12. Consequências para a vida toda
 

<img alt="" data-attachment-id="150482" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-description="

Uma menina assiste a outras jovens jogarem vôlei na escola Muntinlupa, nas Filipinas. Foto: UNICEF/Estey

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"2","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN014940/Estey","camera":"Canon EOS 5D Mark III","caption":"On 8 March 2016, a girl stands in front of a fence watching older girls play a volleyball match at the UNICEF-supported Marillac Hills Centre in the city of Muntinlupa, in Metro Manila, Philippines. The government-run shelter is a safe haven for girls who have been physically and sexually abused, with many exploited through live streaming of child sexual abuse and the sex tourism industry. The girls live at the shelter while their cases are being processed through the judicial system, but because a case can take several months to many years to resolve, this is where many girls will spend their youth, away from their families. The girls often perceive the rescue efforts as a punishment because they have been removed from their families. The children live in large group homes where they sleep in dormitories, share meals and attend classes, which are provided not only in reading and writing, but also in sewing and computer literacy and ethics.rnrnWorldwide, children make up one-third of all Internet users. With the rapid expansion of information and communication technologies, protecting children online is an urgent global priority. Among Filipino youth, more than half regularly use the Internet on own devices with easy and unrestricted online access. The lack of awareness of online safety, along with childrenu2019s natural inquisitiveness, adolescent sexual curiosity and susceptibility to peer influence, makes children vulnerable to online violence, sexual abuse and exploitation. This can manifest itself in cyberbullying, sexual solicitation online, and victimization through child sexual abuse material and live stream child sexual abuse. Online sexual abuse and exploitation may involve both contact and non-contact offenses, and often involves subtle forms of manipulation in which a child is coerced into these situations without being able to fully comprehend what is happening to them or give informed consent. While poverty in the Philippines, and a culture of silence","created_timestamp":"1457401036","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"135","iso":"400","shutter_speed":"0.00075301204819277","title":"JoshPhilippines57","orientation":"1"}” data-image-title=”Uma menina assiste a outras jovens jogarem vôlei na escola Muntinlupa, nas Filipinas. Foto: UNICEF/Estey” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014940-1024×640.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014940-300×188.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014940-e1542196543555.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,640″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/joshphilippines57/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN014940-e1542196543555.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 438px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Uma menina assiste a outras jovens jogarem vôlei na escola Muntinlupa, nas Filipinas – Foto: UNICEF/Estey

Na primeira infância, o estresse associado à exposição repetida a episódios de violência pode interferir no desenvolvimento saudável do cérebro. Também pode levar a comportamentos antissociais, ao uso abusivo de substâncias, ao comportamento sexual de risco e à prática de atividades criminosas.

13. Um problema evitável
 

<img alt="" data-attachment-id="150483" data-comments-opened="0" data-image-description="

Jovens no Centro de Mediação de Pares da ONG Domovik, no Kosovo, onde aprendem a resolver conflitos e lidar com as diferenças sem recorrer à violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF. Foto: UNICEF/
Babajanyan VII Photo

” data-image-meta=”{"aperture":"5","credit":"u00a9 UNICEF/UN0220914/Babajanyan V","camera":"NIKON D800","caption":"Group of peer mediators meet at the Peer Mediation Center of Domovik NGO, in Mitrovica North, on May 30, 2018. The UNICEF supported NGO trains students at becoming peer mediators. The involvement of students as peer mediators is an informal way of resolving small levels of conflict. The UNICEF peer mediation program is part of UNICEFu2019s violence prevention agenda.","created_timestamp":"1527686953","copyright":"u00a9 Notice: UNICEF photographs are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any medium without written permission from authorized","focal_length":"28","iso":"1000","shutter_speed":"0.0125","title":"AB20180530UNICEFKosovoEVAC177","orientation":"0"}” data-image-title=”Jovens no Centro de Mediação de Pares da ONG Domovik, no Kosovo, onde aprendem a resolver conflitos e lidar com as diferenças sem recorrer à violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF. Foto: UNICEF/ Babajanyan VII Photo” data-large-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220914-1024×683.jpg” data-medium-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220914-300×200.jpg” data-orig-file=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220914-e1542196616921.jpg” data-orig-size=”1024,683″ data-permalink=”https://nacoesunidas.org/unicef-13-motivos-para-acabar-com-a-violencia-nas-escolas/ab20180530unicefkosovoevac177/” scale=”0″ src=”https://nacoesunidas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/UN0220914-e1542196616921.jpg” style=”border: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; height: 467px; border-radius: 0px; width: 700px;”>
Jovens no Centro de Mediação de Pares da ONG Domovik, no Kosovo, onde aprendem a resolver conflitos e lidar com as diferenças sem recorrer à violência. A instituição recebe apoio do UNICEF – Foto: UNICEF/ Babajanyan VII Photo

A violência nas escolas pode ser prevenida. Estudantes de todas as partes do mundo estão se manifestando para pedir a segurança e a educação que eles merecem. É hora de seguir os passos desses jovens. Não deixe a violência ser uma aula cotidiana.

 

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